Kidney Cancer – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

What Causes Kidney Disease Cancer Infection?

Kidney cancer is actually cancer that starts in the kidneys. The kidneys appear to be two bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal organs. One kidney is located on each side of the spine. Renal cell carcinoma is in fact the common kind of kidney cancer diagnosed in adults. Other less common form of kidney cancer could also occur. It has also been found that young children are likely to develop kidney cancer, which is known as Wilms’ tumour.

The occurrence of kidney cancer appears to be increasing. The reason for this might be the imaging techniques like computerized tomography scans that are used more frequently. These tests might lead to accidental detection of more kidney cancers. Often, kidney cancer sign is diagnosed at an early level, when the cancer is relatively small and limited to the kidney.

Kidney Cancer: Signs and Symptoms

Often, kidney cancer is detected when a person undergoes an imaging test like computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound, for another reason. It has been observed that kidney cancer causes minor or no pain in its earliest stage. Therefore, symptoms usually occur when the tumour becomes big and starts to affect nearby organs. People suffering from kidney cancer might experience the following signs. On certain occasions, individuals with kidney or colon cancer symptomsdon’t have any of these changes. However, in other cases, the actual cause of a symptom might be a different condition or disease, which is not cancer.

  • fatigue
  • low red blood cell (RBC) count
  • high blood pressure
  • swelling of the legs and ankles
  • a lump or mass in the back or side
  • pressure or pain in the back or side
  • blood in urine
  • recurring fever which is not from flu, cold or other infection
  • unexplained weight loss
  • reduced appetite
  • fatigue
  • fast development of a clump of enlarged veins in the testicles which is called a varicocele

Studies have shown that there is a connection between kidney disease and kidney cancer.

Kidney Disease Risk

Surgery to Get Rid of an Entire Kidney: At times, the entire kidney must be surgically removed as the tumour gets so big and a large portion of kidney is destroyed. The danger for kidney disease gets higher if all of the kidney should be removed because of kidney or cervical cancer. Nevertheless, removing the entire kidney is usually better for survival if the tumour is big or located centrally. On the other hand, if kidney tumour is small in size, it will be better to have a surgery to eliminate the tumour but not the full kidney. This approach reduces the possibility of developing acute kidney disease and related problems with blood vessel and heart disease.

Drugs to Stop or Slow Cancer Growth: Medicines that spread all through the body to relieve cancer cells, wherever they might be, are at times used to get rid of advanced kidney cancer. Remember that all kidney or bladder cancer medications have some adverse effects, but some could be toxic to kidney.

Kidney Cancer Risk

Some researches have demonstrated that individuals suffering from kidney disease might have a high risk for kidney cancer owing to:

Immunosuppressant Medications: Some anti-injection drugs that should be consumed by kidney transplant recipients to preclude rejection can increase the danger for kidney cancer. Nonetheless, taking immunosuppressant medication is essential if you have a kidney transplant. Furthermore, without it, the body will reject the new kidney.

Long-term Dialysis: It has been identified that individuals who have been on long term dialysis tend to have five-fold increased danger for kidney cancer. Doctors believe this risk of signs of colon cancer or kidney cancer is due to kidney disease instead of dialysis.

Causes of Kidney Cancer

Though, many risk factors could increase the possibility of developing kidney cancer, it is not clear how some of the risk factors cause the kidney cells to become cancer.

Changes in Genes

Cancer is in fact caused by alterations in DNA inside the cells. Moreover, DNA is chemical in the cells which makes up genes. In addition, genes control how the cells work. DNA, which originates from both the parents, affects more than how we look.Some genes help in controlling when the cells grow, separate into new cells, and ultimately die:

  • Certain genes which help cells grow, separate and stay alive are known as oncogenes.
  • Genes which help keep cell division in control or cause the cells to die at an appropriate time are known as tumoursuppressor genes.

Cancers could be caused by DNA mutationsthat turn-on oncogenes or turn-off tumour suppressor genes, leading to cells getting out of control. Mutations in several different genes are usually required to cause esophageal cancer or kidney cancer.

Inherited Gene Mutations

Particular inherited DNA changes could be present in some families which can increase the danger of kidney cancer. For example, the gene which causes von Hippel-Lindau disease is actually a tumour suppressor gene. Normally, it keeps the cells from getting out of control. Mutationsin this gene could be inherited from the parents. In addition, when VHL gene changes, itno longer controls the abnormal growth. Due to this, kidney cancer is likely to develop.

Inherited mutations in the subsequenttumour suppressor genes also cause an increased risk of throat cancer and kidney cancer:

  • The FH genes (connected to hereditary leiomyomas that can cause fibroids in uterus and skin),
  • FLCN gene (Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome)
  • The SDHD and SDHB genes (familial renal cancer)

Individuals with genetic papillary renal cell carcinoma have hereditary changes in the MET oncogene which cause it to be turned on constantly. This could further lead to uncontrolled cell development and makes an individual likely to experience papillary RCC.

Special genetic tests could diagnose some of the gene changes associated with these hereditary syndromes. If a person has a family history of lung cancer symptoms, kidney cancer or other cancers related to these syndromes, they might ask a doctor about genetic testing and genetic counselling.

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